Interferon alfa (IntronA, Roferon-A)

Interferon alfa is also called by its brand names IntronA and Roferon-A. It is a possible treatment for a number of different types of cancer such as:

  • kidney cancer (renal cell cancer)
  • melanoma
  • multiple myeloma
  • some types of leukaemia
  • some neuroendocrine tumours (NETs)
  • non-Hodgkin lymphoma

It is also used to treat conditions other than cancer including hepatitis B and hepatitis C. 

    How interferon alfa works

    Interferon alfa stimulates T cells and other immune system cells to attack the cancer. It can also encourage cancer cells to send out chemicals that attract immune system cells to them.

    How you have interferon alfa

    You usually have interferon alfa as an injection just under the skin (subcutaneously). You have it into the tummy (abdomen), upper arm or thigh. A nurse may teach you to give the injection yourself at home if you are having interferon for some weeks or months. Or a family member can learn how to do it.

    You need to keep your interferon in the fridge.

    As an injection under the skin (subcutaneous)

    You usually have injections under the skin (subcutaneous injection) into the stomach, thigh or top of your arm.

    You might have stinging or a dull ache for a short time after this type of injection but they don't usually hurt much. The skin in the area may go red and itchy for a while.

    The video below shows you how to give an injection just under your skin (subcutaneously). 

    When you have interferon alfa

    How often you have interferon alfa depends on your cancer type. You usually have it every day or 3 times a week.

    Depending on your needs, you may continue to have interferon alfa for a number of months.  


    You have blood tests before and during your treatment. They check your levels of blood cells and other substances in the blood. They also check how well your liver and kidneys are working.

    Side effects

    How often and how severe the side effects are can vary from person to person. They also depend on what other treatments you're having. For example, your side effects could be worse if you're also having other drugs or radiotherapy.

    When to contact your team

    Your doctor, nurse or pharmacist will go through the possible side effects. They will monitor you closely during treatment and check how you are at your appointments. Contact your advice line as soon as possible if:

    • you have severe side effects 
    • your side effects aren’t getting any better
    • your side effects are getting worse

    Early treatment can help manage side effects better. 

    Contact your doctor or nurse immediately if you have signs of infection, including a temperature above 37.5C or below 36C.

    We haven't listed all the side effects here. Remember it is very unlikely that you will have all of these side effects, but you might have some of them at the same time.

    Common side effects

    These side effects happen in more than 10 in 100 people (more than 10%). You might have one or more of them. They include:

    Increased risk of infection

    Increased risk of getting an infection is due to a drop in white blood cells. Symptoms include a change in temperature, aching muscles, headaches, feeling cold and shivery and generally unwell. You might have other symptoms depending on where the infection is.

    Infections can sometimes be life threatening. You should contact your advice line urgently if you think you have an infection. 

    Difficulty sleeping 

    It can help to change a few things about how you try to sleep. Try to go to bed and get up at the same time each day and spend some time relaxing before you go to bed. Some light exercise each day may also help. 

    Mood changes 

    You might have a change in your mood. Changes can include irritability, excitement, restlessness or depression.

    Headaches and dizziness 

    Let your doctor or nurse know if you have headaches. They can give you painkillers. Don’t drive or operate machinery if you feel dizzy.

    Dry mouth 

    A dry mouth is also called xerostomia (pronounced zero-stow-mee-a). Talk to your nurse or doctor if you have this. They can give you artificial saliva to help with a dry mouth. It can also help to drink plenty of fluids.

    Blurred vision 

    Do not drive or operate machinery if you have this symptom and speak to your doctor. 

    Feeling or being sick 

    Feeling or being sick is usually well controlled with anti sickness medicines. Avoiding fatty or fried foods, eating small meals and snacks, drinking plenty of water, and relaxation techniques can all help.

    It is important to take anti sickness medicines as prescribed even if you don’t feel sick. It is easier to prevent sickness rather than treating it once it has started.

    Tummy (abdominal) pain

    Tell your treatment team if you have this. They can check the cause and give you medicine to help. 


    Contact your advice line if you have diarrhoea, such as if you've had 4 or more loose watery poos (stools) in 24 hours. Or if you can't drink to replace the lost fluid. Or if it carries on for more than 3 days.

    Your doctor may give you anti diarrhoea medicine to take home with you after treatment. Eat less fibre, avoid raw fruits, fruit juice, cereals and vegetables, and drink plenty to replace the fluid lost.

    Sore mouth 

    It may be painful to swallow drinks or food. Painkillers and mouth washes can help to reduce the soreness and keep your mouth healthy. 

    Taste changes 

    Taste changes may make you go off certain foods and drinks. You may also find that some foods taste different from usual or that you prefer to eat spicier foods. Your taste gradually returns to normal a few weeks after your treatment finishes.

    Hair loss

    Your hair may thin but you’re unlikely to lose all your hair. This usually starts after your first or second cycle of treatment. It is almost always temporary and your hair will grow back when you finish your treatment.


    Let your doctor know if you are sweating more than normal. They may be able to prescribe medicines to help. Cutting out alcohol and caffeine may help with sweating.

    Pain in your muscles and joints

    You might feel some pain from your muscles and joints. Speak to your doctor or nurse about what painkillers you can take to help with this.

    Inflammation at the injection site 

    You might notice redness, swelling and pain around the area where you have had the injection. 

    Tiredness (fatigue)

    You might feel very tired and as though you lack energy.

    Various things can help you to reduce tiredness and cope with it, for example exercise. Some research has shown that taking gentle exercise can give you more energy. It is important to balance exercise with resting.

    Flu like symptoms 

    This can happen a few hours after treatment. It may include headaches, muscle aches (myalgia), a high temperature and shivering. Taking paracetamol every 6 to 8 hours can help.

    Loss of appetite and weight loss 

    You might not feel like eating and may lose weight. It is important to eat as much as you can. Eating several small meals and snacks throughout the day can be easier to manage. You can talk to a dietitian if you are concerned about your appetite or weight loss. 

    Occasional side effects

    These side effects happen in between 1 and 10 out of every 100 people (between 1 and 10%). You might have one or more of them. They include:

    • a drop in the number of red blood cells and platelets in your blood which may cause tiredness, nosebleeds or bleeding gums
    • changes in the levels of thyroid hormones
    • low levels of calcium in your body
    • loss of fluid in your body (dehydration)
    • high levels of uric acid in your body
    • confusion
    • pins and needles in your arms and legs
    • tremor or shaking hands
    • redness (flushing) of the skin
    • redness, inflammation and pain in your eyes
    • hearing changes such as hearing loss and ringing in your ears (tinnitus)
    • heart problems such as palpitations, a high heart rate (tachycardia) and high blood pressure
    • coughing and difficulty breathing
    • constipation
    • skin rash
    • feeling thirsty
    • passing urine more often
    • loss of sex drive
    • painful menstrual periods or loss of your periods
    • breast pain

    Rare side effects

    This side effects happens in fewer than 1 in 100 people (fewer than 1%). You might have one or more of them. They include:

    • a serious whole body infection (sepsis)
    • changes to your blood sugar levels and diabetes
    • increased appetite
    • suicidal thoughts and hearing voices (hallucinations)
    • numbness and tingling in the feet and hands
    • bleeding in the brain
    • inflammation of the heart and a heart attack
    • low blood pressure
    • inflammation of the lungs, pancreas and bowel
    • pain in your back
    • an enlarged liver
    • increase in the level of liver enzymes
    • protein in your urine
    • damage to the kidneys that causes them to not work properly
    • a severe skin reaction that may start as tender red patches which leads to peeling or blistering of the skin. You might also feel feverish and your eyes may be more sensitive to light. This is serious and could be life threatening

    Coping with side effects

    We have more information about side effects and tips on how to cope with them.

    What else do I need to know?

    Other medicines, foods and drinks 

    Cancer drugs can interact with some other medicines and herbal products. Tell your doctor or pharmacist about any medicines you are taking. This includes vitamins, herbal supplements and over the counter remedies.

    Loss of fertility 

    You may not be able to become pregnant or father a child after treatment with this drug. Talk to your doctor before starting treatment if you think you may want to have a baby in the future.

    Men might be able to store sperm before starting treatment. And women might be able to store eggs or ovarian tissue. But these services are not available in every hospital, so you would need to ask your doctor about this.    

    Pregnancy and contraception 

    It is unknown whether treatment may or may not harm a baby developing in the womb. It is important not to become pregnant or father a child while you are having treatment.

    Talk to your doctor or nurse about effective contraception you can use during treatment. Ask how long you should use it before starting treatment and after treatment has finished.


    It is not known whether this drug comes through into the breast milk. Doctors usually advise that you don’t breastfeed during this treatment.

    Treatment for other conditions

    Always tell other doctors, nurses, pharmacists or dentists that you’re having this treatment if you need treatment for anything else, including teeth problems.


    Don’t have immunisations with live vaccines while you’re having treatment and for up to 12 months afterwards. The length of time depends on the treatment you are having. Ask your doctor or pharmacist how long you should avoid live vaccinations.

    In the UK, live vaccines include rubella, mumps, measles, BCG, yellow fever and one of the shingles vaccines called Zostavax.

    You can have:

    • other vaccines, but they might not give you as much protection as usual
    • the flu vaccine (as an injection)
    • the coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine - talk to your doctor or pharmacist about the best time to have it in relation to your cancer treatment

    Members of your household who are aged 5 years or over are also able to have the COVID-19 vaccine. This is to help lower your risk of getting COVID-19 while having cancer treatment and until your immune system Open a glossary item recovers from treatment.

    Contact with others who have had immunisations - You can be in contact with other people who have had live vaccines as injections. Avoid close contact with people who have recently had live vaccines taken by mouth (oral vaccines) such as the oral typhoid vaccine.

    If your immune system is severely weakened, you should avoid contact with children who have had the flu vaccine as a nasal spray as this is a live vaccine. This is for 2 weeks following their vaccination.

    Babies have the live rotavirus vaccine. The virus is in the baby’s poo for about 2 weeks and could make you ill if your immunity is low. Get someone else to change their nappies during this time if you can. If this isn't possible, wash your hands well after changing their nappy.

    More information about this treatment

    For further information about this treatment go to the electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) website.

    You can report any side effect you have to the Medicines Health and Regulatory Authority (MHRA) as part of their Yellow Card Scheme.

    Related links